Oats seem generally to have been present in early archaeological contexts as a weed of cultivation that invaded stands of wheat and barley, rather than being deliberately cultivated. Wheat and barley were the staple cereals of rabi cultivation. Coloured gemstones such as turquoise, lapis and lazuli wer… There is evidence, however, of the widespread cultivation of a species of Brassica, brown mustard (Indian rape), and of gourds in the Mature Harappan period, and later of ivy gourd, while okras were grown at Balathal in the neighboring Ahar-Banas region. Small cubical weights, ranging from one to sixty-four times the smallest unit of 0.871 grams, were present in all sizes of settlements, while major towns and cities also had heavier weights, up to 10.865 kilograms (12,800 units). A building with seven narrow rooms in this settlement may have been a warehouse for storing goods for trade and commodities received in trade. In modern South Asia, pastoralists play an important role in providing links between settled communities and in transmitting goods from place to place as they move in their seasonal round. Lead and copper c, ame from China and cedar tree wood was floated down the rivers from Kashmir and the Himalayas. Advancement of technology led to carts and early boats that were used as the main method of trade and travel. scale pans here are made of copper. The end of the Mohenjo-Daro civilization was probably because of the deteriorating economy … A small platform in front of the cab provided a seat for the driver. However, many of their pottery vessels resembled those of the Harappans, and other characteristic Harappan artifacts, such as model carts, were known in Kulli sites. From the Makran coast, it is a short, easy sea crossing, around 30-40 hours under sail, to Oman on the western side of the Gulf, known as Magan to the Mesopotamians, and seaborne relations between these areas may have been established by the early third millennium BC; fishing sites on me Oman coast are known by the fifth millennium. These may have been from either domestic or wild rice. Useful species included sissoo, acacia and tamarisk, which were widely available. Overland Trade across the Iranian Plateau: From the earliest period of settlement at Mehrgarh in the seventh millennium, far-reaching trade networks had given the village’s inhabitants access to the products of other regions, such as seashells from the Makran coast, turquoise from Kyzyl Kum in Central Asia, and lapis lazuli probably from Badakshan in Afghanistan. During the winter months, between October/November and March/April, the gentle northeast monsoon winds blow from India toward the Arabian Peninsula and ultimately East Africa. Charred rice husks and impressions of rice husks and leaves in Harappan pottery have been found in this region, at Lothal and Rangpur. Other minerals occurring there include turquoise, sodalite (a mineral resembling lapis lazuli), zinc, gold, silver, and lead, though there is no evidence that these were extracted there during the Indus period. It provided fertile soil and clay. The Sumerian and Harappan civilizations were comparable in their organizational and economic complexity. Another Harappan settlement in the north was located near Mianwali bordering the Late Kot Diji territory south of the Salt Range and may have been concerned with salt procurement. Agate and other gemstones for making beads may also have been obtained by hunter- gatherers. Although the resources of the greater Indus region were rich and varied, it lacked a number of important raw materials, notably copper. It was among the cultivated plants at the Late Harappan site of Hulas where both wild and cultivated indica rice were identified. Islands off the western shore also offered opportunities for settlement. Sumer had developed writing during the late fourth millennium and by 2500 BC was creating copious records of economic transactions, legal documents, political statements, letters, and literature, so a considerable amount of information survives on Mesopotamian involvement in Gulf trade. Only in the Late Harappan period did farming settlements spread onto the moisture retentive, black cotton soils in other parts of Saurashtra, where kharif crops could be raised, watered by rainfall brought by the summer monsoon. The Harappans’ export of timber to Babylonia is of great significance in this context. The Harappans grew three or four varieties of barley, including both naked and hulled types. As it was a Bronze Age civilization. A number of Harappan seals, beads, and ivory inlays and a Harappan weight were found at Susa, the Elamite capital, and gaming boards of similar design are known from Susa and Lothal. Create your own unique website with customizable templates. This must reflect a resumption of links between the Iranian plateau and South Asia across the passes of Baluchistan, making use of pack and draft animals. South Asia had a number of native pulses that were locally domesticated. This is known as rabi cultivation in South Asia. 93. Decline in trade is the economic theory given for the fall of the Indus Valley civilization. The main crops grown were wheat, rice, dates, melons, green vegetables, and cotton. The fine examples of wells in Indus towns show the high level of Harappan competence in constructing them. - boats were probably small, flat-bottomed craft, perhaps driven by sail. Jujube (ber, Zizyphus jujuba), an edible red berry, was known at Mehrgarh from the earliest period, though it was probably gathered rather than cultivated; this may also have been true of its later use. If the Indus realms were not a united states but a series of smaller polities, the seals might similarly have been used as identifiers by individuals who passed between the polities on the business of trade and resource procurement. These had to be searched for, but they provided the best agricultural land, cultivable without plowing. Settlements, such as Siraf, were established in some periods at points where a good anchorage existed, though such sheltered spots are few in number. This is jewelry from Mesopotamia at the time, though the Indus Valley would have had its own gold jewelry. If comparable documents were created by the Harappans, they were made of perishable materials of which no trace remains. In some cases the platform may have had permanent sidepieces but many just had holes into which wooden stakes could be slotted when required to form sides supporting a load. City workers made such things as pots, beads and cotton cloth. The presence of an unbroken clay sealing could also act as a guarantee that the sealed package had not been opened or tampered with before it reached the intended recipient. Some of the raw materials required by the Harappans could be obtained from neighboring areas. Bamboo was available in the Makran and its wood was found at Harappa. During the rainy season, when a huge area surrounding Lake Manchar is submerged by floods, modern inhabitants of the region abandon their homes on its shores and take to houseboats, or they live year round on houseboats, a way of life that may have existed in Indus times. 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