(1988). Some of it is tangible, such as financial or other material rewards, including trophies or medals. Tammen, V., Treasure, D., & Power, K. T. (1992). Learning, the alteration of behaviour as a result of individual experience. Goal orientations, beliefs  about  success,  and  performance  improvement  among young  elite  Dutch  soccer  players. Learners are required to show an understanding ofthe theories and how these apply to sports performance. Humanistic Theory of Motivation Humanistic theories of motivation are based on the idea that people also have strong cognitive reasons to perform various actions. In   C. Ames  &  R.  Ames  (Eds.). Duda, J. L. (1992). Rawsthorne, L. J., & Elliot, A. J. The sandwich theory motivates athletes to correct or improve without destroying their sense of enjoyment, pride or inclusion as an equal team member. Repeated goal setting in order to progress and maintain motivation Goals must be all of the following in order to be attain… Extrinsic motivation is motivation that comes from an outside source. Her copywriting has served clients from Bayer to Volkswagen. Treasure, D. C., & Roberts, G. C. (1994b). Goal orientations and beliefs about  the  causes  of  sport  success  among  elite  skiers. Clarifying misconceptions and misrepresentations in achievement goal research: A response to Harwood,   Hardy,   and   Swain   (2000). Psychological and physiological determinants of overtraining and burnout in elite athletes. Intrinsic motivation comes from within the athlete or player. Qualitative analysis. Kavussanu, M., & Ntoumanis, N. (2003). Professional athletes have a tough job to do. The  relationship  between  goal  perspectives, persistence  and  behavioral  intensity  among  male  and  female recreational sport participants. The acknowledged founder of attribution theory is Fritz Heider (1944). (2001). James theorized that behavior was driven by a number of instincts, which aid survival (Figure 3). The relationship between goal orientation, beliefs about the causes of sport success, and trait  anxiety  among  high  school,  intercollegiate,  and  recreational sport participants. (2005). Dimensions of achievement motivation  in  schoolwork  and  sport. Avoiding  the  demonstration  of  lack  of  ability:  An  underexplored  aspect  of  goal theory. Smith, M., Duda, J. L., Allen, J., & Hall, H. (2002). Contextual  influences  on  moral  functioning  of  college  basketball players. Doing so motivates athletes to put forth the necessary effort for improvement because their larger extrinsic or intrinsic needs are being met. Marsh, H. (1994). It is a high pressure job and they are expected to perform better than everyone else in their profession. Harwood, C., & Swain, A. Thoughts about motivation. One of the theories that help explain motivational processes is the self-determination theory (SDT; Deci and Ryan, 1980, 1985, 1991, 2012; Ryan and Deci, 2020). Approach-avoidance motivation in personality: Approach and avoidance temperaments and  goals. (1993). Implicit and self-attributed achievement  motives:  Concordance  and  predictive  validity. Motivation in sport settings: A goal perspective approach. Pensgaard, A.-M., & Roberts, G. C. (2002). In R. Ames & C. Ames (Eds.). Effective schools or effective students? As well as negative motivation, negative reinforcement is present in the scene where Coach Carter is … In D. H. Schunk & J. L. Meece (Eds.). Fear of failure and achievement goals in sport: Addressing the issue of the chicken and the egg. In E. Müller, H. Schwameder, G. Zallinger, & V. Fastenbauer (Eds.). Roberts,  G.  C.,  Treasure,  D.  C.,  &  Kavussanu,  M.  (1996). deCharms,  R.  (1984). 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